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PORTSIDE  July 2012, Week 1

PORTSIDE July 2012, Week 1

Subject:

Tom Paine and the 4th of July

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Tue, 3 Jul 2012 19:38:07 -0400

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Tom Paine and the 4th of July: The Worker Who Helped Make a
Revolution

By Al Hart,
Managing Editor, UE News

UE News
(United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America)
Independence Day 2012 issue

http://www.ranknfile-ue.org/uenewsupdates.html?news=688

July 4 is the birthday of the United States, the date when
the Continental Congress adopted a Declaration of
Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, which turned an
ongoing revolt against Britain's oppressive policies into an
anti-colonial and anti-monarchical revolution.

Jefferson and George Washington were wealthy planters and
slave owners from Virginia. Nearly all the leaders of the
American Revolution - known ever since as "the Founding
Fathers" - were members of the upper classes: rich merchants,
investors, landowners, planters, judges and lawyers. But
Thomas Paine - the man whose writings won over the country to
the idea of independence and helped rally the army and the
people to defeat the powerful British Empire - was the
exception.

John Adams once said that without the pen of Thomas Paine,
the sword of George Washington "would have been raised in
vain." In 2012, when the rights of workers are under attack
in the United States, it is important for us to remember that
Tom Paine was one of us: a worker, an immigrant, a consistent
foe of oppression and of privilege, and one who called
himself "a citizen of the world."

YOUTH IN ENGLAND

Paine was born in 1737 in Thetford, in the English region of
East Anglia. His parents were of different religions - his
mother a member of the establish Church of England, and his
father a believer in one of the "dissenting" Protestant
sects, the Quakers. The Quakers opposed violence, militarism,
and aristocracy, and their influence helped shape Paine's
later political and religious views. Paine's father Joseph
was a stay maker (corset maker), and at age 13 Paine
apprenticed to his father in that craft. Young Paine worked
for several years as a corset maker, but he had a difficult
time making a living at the trade.

Thetford and the surrounding countryside was under the thumb
of the local aristocratic family, the Fitz Roys, who ruled as
the Dukes of Grafton. Thetford's two seats in Parliament were
controlled by the Duke, and for decades one of them was
always held by a Fitz Roy. The poverty of the area was
attributable to the Graftons, who even in Paine's youth
continued the process, which began in the days of Henry VIII,
of enclosure - privatizing the land, driving off the
peasants, and barring the commoners from access to forests,
pastures and other common lands.

Thetford was also the site of the Lenten Assizes, an annual
court in which poor and working-class prisoners were often
sentenced to hang for minor offenses against property:
stealing a packet of tea, a bushel of wheat, or a few
shillings. The hangings took place on Gallows Hill, within
sight of the Paine family cottage. Growing up in the presence
of such injustice helped make Paine a fighter against class
oppression, and though not a pacifist, an opponent of capital
punishment and vengeful violence.

In 1761 Paine became a public employee, an excise officer,
collecting taxes on imports, exports and domestic industrial
products. The duties of excise officers included detecting
and arresting smugglers. Despite their high level of
responsibility, excise officers were poorly paid and
frequently had to move to other parts of the country, at
their own expense. In 1772 excise officers began organizing
to petition Parliament for better pay and working conditions,
and on behalf of his co-workers Paine wrote and published a
pamphlet, The Case of the Officers of Excise. For helping to
organize, in effect, a public employee union, Paine was
fired, and was soon found himself in a desperate financial
condition. But in 1774, he was introduced in London to
Benjamin Franklin, the prominent American leader from
Philadelphia, who urged him to emigrate.

COMMON SENSE AND REVOLUTION

Two months after his arrival in Philadelphia, he was hired as
editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine. The articles he wrote
for the magazine show not only Paine's talent as a writer,
but his political courage and developing radicalism. In March
1775 he published one of the earliest anti-slavery articles,
"African Slavery in America." With the American colonists
revolting against Britain's encroachments on their freedom,
Paine asked, "With what consistency, or decency, they
complain so loudly of attempts to enslave them, while they
hold so many hundred thousands in slavery, and annually
enslave many thousands more...?" In this period he also
published a denunciation of Britain's brutal conquest of
India.

In January 1776 Paine anonymously published a short pamphlet,
Common Sense, that established him, for his time and for
history, as one of the greatest political writers and
revolutionaries. It argued for the independence of the North
American colonies from Britain. The pamphlet was a huge
success - the first edition sold out in two weeks; within
three months, 100,000 copies were circulating; and it was
talked about everywhere. People who couldn't read had it read
to them. Paine wrote to be understood by the common people,
in a clear style that avoided the embellishments that
characterized English political writing in his time. "In
addition to the brilliantly plain style," writes Paine
biographer John Keane, "the striking originality of the
political ideas helped to magnetize American readers."
Historian Peter Linebaugh adds, "The shock and power of the
pamphlet arises from its ridicule of kingship... and of
English kings in particular." Common Sense so changed the
political discourse that, by July even the most cautious and
conservative delegates to the Continental Congress were ready
to approve and sign a Declaration of Independence.

Immediately after its publication in English, Common Sense
was translated into German, and it was widely circulated in
both languages. Contrary to the propaganda of anti-immigrant
and "English-only" demagogues today, the U.S. was not founded
on monolingualism. In 1776 many in the colonies - especially
Pennsylvania - spoke and read only German, even though their
ancestors had immigrated from Germany more than 100 years
earlier. When Congress approved the Declaration of
Independence, it had that document also published in German
as well as English.

"THE TIMES THAT TRY MEN'S SOULS"

In late 1776 the Continental Army suffered a string of major
defeats, losing New York City and retreating into
Pennsylvania. Paine wrote a very short but powerful pamphlet,
The American Crisis, printed and reprinted up and down the
Atlantic Coast, that raised morale among civilians and
soldiers. Washington had it read to his troops on Christmas
Day; its opening words are among the best- remembered in U.S.
history:

    "These are the times that try men's souls: The summer
    soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis,
    shrink from the service of their country; but he that
    stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and
    woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet
    we have this consolation with us, that the harder the
    conflict, the more glorious the triumph."

Hours after hearing these words, Washington's troops crossed
the Delaware River and won the Battle of Trenton, New Jersey,
regaining the military initiative. The American Crisis became
the first of a series of pamphlets, with the same title but
numbered 1 through 13, which Paine wrote through the course
of the war, helping to rally the country.

Paine became friends with many of the political and military
leaders of the Revolution, and in 1777 he became secretary to
the Continental Congress's committee for foreign affairs. But
he lost many of his powerful friends, and his job with
Congress, in what was known as the Silas Deane affair. When
France became an ally of the new nation in its war against
Britain, Congress sent Deane to France to purchase supplies.
But Paine soon found evidence, which he publicly exposed,
that Deane and a Frenchman named Beumarchais had charged the
U.S. for guns, ammunitions and other supplies that the French
government had given as gifts. To Paine, such profiteering at
public expense violated "republican virtue." Paine lived by
that ethic all his life, never profiting from his public
service, subsisting on modest salaries, making almost no
money from his writings, and often living on the brink of
poverty. For blowing the whistle on Deane, Paine was vilified
and ostracized by members of Congress and merchants, but
years later some of them admitted that Paine had been right.

In 1776, Pennsylvania adopted the most democratic
constitution in America, written by radical allies of Paine,
which removed property-ownership requirements for voting and
holding office. The new constitution was attacked by wealthy
conservatives but defended by Paine. Paine again came under
fire from the rich and powerful when in 1779, he supported a
movement for price controls on food and other necessities.
Rapidly rising prices were impoverishing working people, and
Paine reminded his opponents, the wealthy merchants, that
labor is the source of wealth. Paine also served for a time
as a clerk to the Pennsylvania legislature, and worked with
his allies in the assembly on legislation to abolish slavery
in the state. He was disappointed that the best they could
achieve was a law mandating gradual emancipation.

THE RIGHTS OF MAN

In 1787 Paine returned to London, and took great interest in
the French Revolution when it broke out in 1789. (He also
welcomed the Haitian Revolution, the world's first successful
slave uprising, which began two years later.) The
conservative political thinker Edmund Burke in 1790 wrote
Reflections on the Revolution in France, which he attacked,
arguing that monarchy and hereditary aristocracy were needed
to save civilization from "the swinish multitude." Paine
responded with his second great work, The Rights of Man, a
brilliant defense of the French Revolution, republicanism and
democracy. While Burke's book was written in pompous language
for an audience of aristocrats, Paine wrote in a
straightforward, democratic style to reach the broadest
readership - which his book did.

The Rights of Man quickly became a huge best seller in
Britain (even bigger in Ireland), and helped spark the growth
of a democratic, anti-royalist political movement among the
working and lower-middle classes. Subverting the British
monarchy and the system of class rule was clearly Paine's
intent, and the government of King George III and Prime
Minister William Pitt came to view him as a serious threat.
The government instigated a hate campaign - including the
publication of a slanderous "biography" of Paine, other
attacks in the press, and right-wing "church- and-king" mobs
that physically attacked Paine's friends, burned copies of
Rights of Man, and burned or hung effigies of Paine. Warned
that his life was in danger, and with his arrest pending on
charges of "seditious libel," Paine crossed the English
Channel to France on September 14, 1792. After he fled, the
Pitt government tried and convicted Paine in absentia, in a
rigged trial. He never saw his native country again.

Revolutionary France welcomed Paine as a hero to the cause of
liberty, and despite his inability to speak French, he was
elected to the National Convention. He encouraged the French
to depose the king and declare a republic. But consistent
with his lifelong opposition to capital punishment, he argued
against executing Louis XVI. The words of Thomas Paine
carried considerable weight in the Convention, and the motion
to execute the king passed by only a few votes. This earned
him enemies among the more extremist Jacobin faction, and
when Paine's political allies fell from power and the
Jacobins took control of the government, led by Maximilien
Robespierre, Paine was arrested, and he barely escaped
execution on the guillotine.

While in France, and partly while in prison, Paine wrote a
book about religion, The Age of Reason, in which he
articulated the doctrine of Deism - a rationalist religion
shared by Jefferson, Washington and others of the
revolutionary generation. Deists believed in God, but
rejected established religions, including Christianity.
Paine, who had detailed knowledge of the Bible, argued in The
Age of Reason that the scriptures are the work of men, not
the word of God, and that they misrepresent God.

ECONOMIC JUSTICE

In France Paine also wrote Agrarian Justice, his most radical
economic work. Paine was not a socialist, but he believed
that inequalities in wealth caused social injustice, and that
government action was needed to eliminate poverty. He had
articulated these ideas in The Rights of Man, but expanded
them in Agrarian Justice. Land, he wrote, was "the common
property of the human race," but in modern society most
people have lost their birthright in land, whose ownership
has been concentrated in a few hands (a process he witnessed
as a boy in Thetford.) Paine admired the Native Americans,
and wrote that because they held land in common, there was
not among them "any of those spectacles of human misery which
poverty and want present to our eyes in all the towns and
streets in Europe." To remedy poverty and injustice, Paine
proposed an inheritance tax on landed property. This tax
would create a fund from which every person, upon reaching
age 21, would receive a payment of £15 to help get started in
life; and beginning at age 50, each person would receive an
annual pension payment of £10.

With this proposal for a public pension plan funded by taxing
the rich, Paine was far ahead of his time - and far ahead of
many politicians in our time. (For years, the Social Security
Administration has posted the full text of Agrarian Justice
on its website -- obviously someone in that agency views
Paine's pamphlet as a philosophical herald of the Social
Security program.)

Paine returned to the U.S. in 1802, at the invitation of
President Thomas Jefferson. Paine was shunned by members of
the Federalist Party for his radical democratic political
ideas, and by some Christians for his religious views. (He
was often falsely called an atheist.) He died in 1809 at age
72, in Greenwich Village, New York, in relative obscurity.
Only six mourners attended his funeral, two of whom were
African American.

But with the beginnings of a labor movement in the U.S. in
the 1820s and '30s, there also came a Paine revival. Labor
activists held annual dinners on Paine's birthday (January
29), toasting the memory and ideas of the great
revolutionary. Thomas Paine's writings have much to offer us
today - most of all his faith in the ability of people,
acting together, to overcome injustice. As he told us in
Common Sense, "We have it in our power to begin the world
over again."

=====

FURTHER READING

Tom Paine: A Political Life, by John Keane (1995, Little,
Brown and Co., 644 pages) There are many biographies of
Paine; this is one of the best.

Tom Paine and Revolutionary America, by Eric Foner (1976,
Oxford University Press, 368 pages). An excellent study of
Paine's role in the American Revolution.

The Rights of Man and Common Sense: Peter Linebaugh Presents
Thomas Paine (2009, Verso, 314 pages.) There are also many
collections of Tom Paine's basic writings. This recent one
includes an excellent introduction by Peter Linebaugh, who
teaches history at the University of Toledo, and includes the
complete texts of Common Sense, The Rights of Man, and
Agrarian Justice.

The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine (2 volumes), edited by
Philip S. Foner (Citadel Press, 1969). All of Paine's
writings, filling more than 3,000 pages.

==========

[Many thanks to Al Hart for sharing this double column
celebrating the "independence music of our country" with
Portside.]

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