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PORTSIDE  June 2011, Week 2

PORTSIDE June 2011, Week 2

Subject:

Everything You Didn't Know About Clarence Darrow

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Date:

Mon, 13 Jun 2011 00:57:16 -0400

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Everything You Didn't Know About Clarence Darrow
A newly released book brings new insight into the 
trial attorney made famous by the Scopes monkey trial
By T.A. Frail
Smithsonian.com
June 11, 2011
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Everything-You-Didnt-Know-About-Clarence-Darrow.html

Clarence Darrow exists foremost in the public memory as
Spencer Tracy, who played a lawyer based on Darrow in
the 1960 movie Inherit the Wind. That film, in turn, was
based on Darrow's 1925 defense of a Tennessee educator
accused of breaking a state law banning the teaching of
evolution in public schools. (Darrow lost The State of
Tennessee v. Scopes, or the "monkey trial," as it was
known; the law was later repealed.) But as John A.
Farrell makes clear in his new biography, Clarence
Darrow: Attorney for the Damned, Darrow's life was even
more tumultuous than that sensational trial would
suggest.

Before Darrow became the champion of labor, proponent of
the poor and defender of the most hopeless of death-row
cases, he was a corporate lawyer-and for a railroad, no
less. What turned him away from a career as a fat cat?

He couldn't look at himself in the mirror. He was at
heart one of the most compassionate people you could
imagine meeting, and that part of him was always at war
with the striver, the go-getter. But whenever the chips
came down, they always came down on the side of the guy
who needed a good lawyer. Depending on how he was fixed
at any given time, a third to a half of his cases he was
handling for free for indigent clients. He didn't charge
big fees for his most notorious clients if there was a
good cause behind it. It was just conscience, basically,
that forced him to give up that job as counsel for the
Chicago & North Western Railway. He was also prompted by
his boss, his patron at the railroad, who had a sudden
heart attack and died, so Darrow's decision was helped
along by the fact that he no longer had a career there.

He operated for a while as a political lawyer in Chicago
when the words "politics" and "Chicago" were pretty much
synonymous with "graft" and "corruption." How did he
avoid the taint of that time and place?

He didn't, entirely. He got involved in several of the
scandals of the time, but even crooked politicians need
a good lawyer, and sometimes the law is applied in
courts that are straight. So there was a respect for
Darrow among the political boys for his ability to
actually get things done, to run things, while they
pursued their tricks and their deals. At the same time
he was an idealist, and in fact one of the movers in the
attempt by the Populists to spread their campaign from
the farms, where it was born, to the cities.

Of course, William Jennings Bryan became Darrow's most
famous foil during the monkey trial. Yet the two men
were aligned in the 1896 presidential campaign. What
brought them together, however briefly?

You had the growth of the Populist movement-a widespread
feeling out in the West and Midwest that the financiers
of the East were using the gold standard to keep the
average farmer and the average working man in poverty.
For the first time, in Chicago in 1896 [at the
Democratic National Convention], you had a major party
declare that it was going to represent the poor. That
was Bryan's amazing feat of political rhetoric: he was
this young, unknown congressman and he stood up there
and he captivated that convention hall and brought the
Populists and the Democrats together.

Darrow was part of that same movement, but he never
particularly cared for Bryan as a person. He thought
Bryan was too religious and basically too stupid to lead
a major party, and it really grated on him that Bryan
got the presidential nomination three times. So their
rivalry began to simmer and fester, and when Darrow had
a chance to ambush Bryan in the courtroom in Dayton,
Tennessee, in 1925, he took full advantage of it.

In Darrow's day there was open warfare between labor and
capital. He stepped into that war in a major way in
Idaho in 1907, when he defended Big Bill Haywood and two
other unionists charged with murdering a former
governor. You write that, "Of all of Darrow's courtroom
speeches, his summation in the Haywood case was arguably
the most brilliant, and dangerous." In what way
brilliant, and in what way dangerous?

It's brilliant in its eloquence. In those days attorneys
and prosecutors could speak for up to 12 hours, or even
longer-Darrow, in the Leopold and Loeb case, spoke for
three days. The Haywood summation is long, and to the
modern ear it tends to wander, but you have to think of
him standing in the courtroom and speaking to the jury,
and going back and forth over his major themes like a
weaver. That speech is amazing, for his ability both to
tear apart the prosecution's case and to draw from the
jurors-who were not union men, but were working men-an
appreciation for what labor was trying to do.

It was extraordinarily dangerous because he was using a
plea for a client as a soapbox. He made a very political
speech, talking in almost socialistic terms about the
rights of the working class, and there was a danger that
the jury would react against that-as one of his juries
later did in Los Angeles. But it was a very small
courtroom and the defense table was right up against the
jurors; over the course of 90 days he got a very good
sense of who they were, talking during breaks, listening
to them, watching them as they listened to the
testimony. I think it was an informed bet he was willing
to make.

In that trial, there was a whisper that Darrow, or
someone working for the defense, tried to bribe
potential witnesses. And after he defended two brothers
accused of firebombing the Los Angeles Times in 1911,
Darrow himself was tried-twice-on charges that he'd
bribed jurors in that trial. He was acquitted the first
time, but the second case ended with the jury hung 8-4
for convicting him. So: Did he do it?

In the book I argue that he almost certainly did. It's
going to be a puzzle for historians forever; I don't
think we're ever going to find one piece of paper on
which Darrow wrote to one of his cohorts, "Hey, did you
make sure you got the juror that bribe?" But all the
evidence indicates-well, there certainly was an attempt
by the defense to bribe jurors; the question is, to what
extent did Darrow know about it and to what extent did
he actually inspire it? One of the most compelling
things for me was to find in his mistress's diary from
years later that she concluded he had the capacity to do
it. She had been his most faithful supporter and had
insisted on his innocence.

He was very careful in talking to his friends and family
about the charges. He never actually said, "I didn't do
this." He pled not guilty, but he believed that guilt
was always a matter of motive and intent. And in this
case he thought he had a good motive and a good intent
because he was fighting for labor.

Darrow grew up on a hardscrabble farm in Ohio and told
his friend Jane Addams, "I have never been able to get
over the dread of being poor, and the fear of it." But
he had a pretty complicated relationship with money,
didn't he?

He did, and it got him into a lot of trouble. His law
partner for a time was Edgar Lee Masters, the famous
poet, and Masters said it was the money that ruined him.
And Darrow did need money, because, for one thing, he
was a womanizer. He was supporting two households-his
first wife and their son, and then his second wife. It
also cost money to run around chasing other women.

Another problem is that he was an awful investor. His
second wife, Ruby, once wrote to one of his sisters and
said, well, Clarence's new idea is for a ranch in
California, and I guess that's better than an empty or
gold mine or any of the other crackpot schemes he always
jumps at. One of the sadder things about his life is
that he finally got his money into a sound natural-gas
company in Colorado, and when he sold his interest in
the 1920s he had enough money to retire. And then he
lost it all in the crash, so he had to go out in his 70s
making speeches and public appearances and doing stunts
like defending Benedict Arnold on the radio, just to
keep the wolf away from the door.

And speaking of complicated relationships: as you said,
Darrow was twice married and a serial philanderer. What
was up between Darrow and women?

There is a philosophical consistency, in that he was an
advocate of the free-love movement of his day. In
Victorian America the times were so repressive,
particularly for women. One of Darrow's clients was a
well-respected gynecologist from Chicago who wanted to
write in the American Medical Association journal that
it was okay to have pleasure from sexual relations. The
other doctors in the AMA said no, we're not going to say
anything like that; sex is for procreation; it might be
for pleasure if men can go to bordellos, but certainly
not for women at home. That's the kind of climate that
the free-love movement moved against, and Darrow was a
supporter of it. As far as I can tell, he was up front
with his mistresses and the young ladies that he met in
the free-love cause, and they agreed that this was a
natural inclination and you shouldn't try to repress it.

Politically, he was a very early feminist; he argued in
the 1880s for giving women the vote. But later he soured
on the suffragette movement because it aligned itself
with Prohibition, which he hated. He didn't speak or
campaign against giving women the vote, but there was a
marked loss of enthusiasm for what he had thought would
be a very good thing for the country.

Darrow loved the company of friends and the balm of
candid conversation, but at times some of his friends
questioned his choice of cases and causes. Why?

There was a feeling, at least up until the trial in Los
Angeles, that he was motivated by money, that he saw the
opportunity for a very skilled labor lawyer and took it.
You find newspaper editorials and people saying, for
somebody who's talking about the cause of labor, he sure
is making a lot of money off the poor working man. But
after Los Angeles and his disgrace, he had a second act,
and it was redemptive. He represented an awful lot of
indigent clients and took a lot of civil rights cases.
The two major cases of his career came when he was in
his 60s-the Leopold and Loeb case and the monkey trial.
Also his defense in the Sweet trial, which is the key in
deciding whether you like him or not.

After the monkey trial he was without a doubt the most
famous trial lawyer in America. He could have commanded
titanic fees from any corporation in America; they would
have loved to have him. And instead, he used his fame to
go to Detroit and represent for $5,000 over nine months
a group of African Americans who had been trapped in a
house by a racist mob at a time when the city was
whipped into a hateful frenzy by the Ku Klux Klan. [The
homeowner, an African American physician named Ossian
Sweet, had just bought the house in a white
neighborhood; when the mob stoned his house, some men in
the house returned fire with guns, killing a white
neighbor. The 11 men in the house were charged with
murder.]

He got them acquitted in an amazing trial that basically
put down in law something we take for granted today-that
if we believe a person has the right to defend his home,
then African Americans have that right, too. Darrow was
a founding attorney for the NAACP, and this was a big
case for the NAACP. So that's how he chose to invest all
the fame and potential riches he could have had after
his triumph in Dayton, Tennessee.

___________________________________________

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