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PORTSIDELABOR  July 2010, Week 1

PORTSIDELABOR July 2010, Week 1

Subject:

BP - A Long, Bloody History of Reckless Greed

From:

Portside Labor <[log in to unmask]>

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Date:

Fri, 2 Jul 2010 22:55:52 -0400

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text/plain (289 lines)

BP - A Long, Bloody History of Reckless Greed

by Al Hart, Editor, UE News
 
24 June, 2010

http://www.ueunion.org/uenewsupdates.html?news=561

British Petroleum, the company responsible for the worst
single-source environmental catastrophe in U.S. history,
has over its 100-year history caused a number of
environmental and workplace disasters. But the harm BP
has caused goes further. In the early 1950s, BP and the
British government convinced the U.S. to overthrow the
democratic government of Iran - an action that has had
disastrous consequences for Iran, the U.S., and the
Middle East to this day. Before the Gulf disaster - and
the stupidly arrogant statements of its CEO Tony Hayward
- many Americans probably didn't even know that BP was a
British company. In the 1980s BP began gobbling up U.S.
oil companies - Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) in 1978,
Standard Oil of Indiana (Amoco) in 1998, and Atlantic
Richfield (Arco) in 2000. It's now the third-largest
energy company in the world.

The April 20 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig
killed 11 oil workers and started the giant oil leak
that has devastated the Gulf of Mexico. For BP, this
deadly explosion may be the worst, but certainly not the
first. In 1965 the BP oil rig Sea Gem collapsed, killing
13 workers. In September 1999 BP agreed to pay $22
million - including a $500,000 criminal fine - for its
hazardous waste dumping on Alaska's Endicott Island.

In 2005 BP's refinery in Texas City, Texas exploded,
killing 15 people, injuring 180 and trapping thousands
of residents in their homes. OSHA concluded that the
management failures behind the explosion reached to BP's
corporate headquarters in London. The company pled
guilty to felony violations of the Clean Air Act and
paid a $50 million fine. In 2009 OSHA fined BP another
$87 million - the biggest OSHA fine ever - for failing
to correct the hazards that caused the 2005 explosion.

To understand BP and its contempt for environmental and
human rights, we have to go back to the company's
origins, in British efforts to dominate Iran and its
natural resources.

BP IMPERIALISM

BP's original name was the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. It
owes its existence to the corruption of Iran's monarchs,
who over several decades sold off the country's
resources to foreigners to support their own lavish
lifestyles. The reigning Shah of Iran in 1891 sold
Iran's entire tobacco industry to the British Imperial
Tobacco Company for #15,000; the Tobacco Revolt, a mass
boycott by the Iranian people, forced him to cancel the
deal. In 1902 his son, the next shah, sold exclusive
rights to Iran's oil and natural gas to a London
financier, William Knox D'Arcy. A group of British
investors formed the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) to
exploit what was called the D'Arcy concession. By 1913
Anglo-Persian was extracting huge amounts of Iranian oil
and had built the world's largest oil refinery at
Abadan. With World War I imminent, at the urging of
Winston Churchill the British government bought a 51
percent share of the company. (In the 1980s Margaret
Thatcher privatized the government's BP holdings.)

The terms of the D'Arcy concession were obscenely
one-sided. Churchill called it "a prize from fairlyland
beyond our wildest dreams." Iran was promised a 16
percent royalty, but the Brits cheated on the
calculation and in 1920 paid Iran a pitiful #47,000,
while they made millions from its oil.

"The standard of living that people in England enjoyed
all during the 1920s and '30s and '40s was due to
Iranian oil," says journalist Stephen Kinzer. "But at
the same time, Iranians were living in some of the most
miserable conditions of any people in the world."

Oil workers at the Abadan refinery - whose labor was
largely responsible for Britain's prosperity - were paid
50 cents a day with no benefits. They lived in a
shantytown called Kaghazabad (Persian for "Paper City")
with no running water or electricity, surrounded by mud,
stagnant water, and biting flies.

The monarchy's sell-off of Iran's patrimony fueled
popular opposition to the Qajar dynasty, which had ruled
Iran since 1794. A rebellion in 1905 forced the Shah to
accept a parliament (the Majlis) and constitution. But
the monarchy and the British reversed many of the
democratic reforms. In 1919 the British imposed the
Anglo-Persian Accord giving them control of Iran's army,
treasury, transport and communications - making Iran a
virtual British colony. In a final revolt against the
Qajars, the Majlis in 1925 deposed the hated Ahmad Shah
and offered the Peacock Throne to an uneducated but
ruthless military officer named Reza.

Reza Shah ruled with an iron fist - he allowed no labor
organizing nor press freedom - but enacted some
modernizing reforms and pushed back against the British.
In 1928 he demanded a better deal for Iran's oil.
Anglo-Persian stalled negotiations for four years. Only
when the Shah angrily declared the D'Arcy concession
cancelled did the company yield a little - it gave up
claim to some territory, agreed to pay a minimum annual
royalty of #975,000, and changed its name to
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) because the Shah did
not like the name Persia.

Reza's pro-Nazi sympathies led the British to overthrow
him in 1941, placing his 21-year-old son Mohammad Reza
on the throne. But removing the strongman had unintended
consequences.

In March 1946 oil workers at the Abadan refinery arose
in an unprecedented strike, demanding better housing,
healthcare, and AIOC's compliance with Iran's labor
laws. The British refused to negotiate, stirred up
divisions between majority Persian workers and ethnic
Arabs, and arranged for two British warships to show up
just off shore. They ended the strike with promises to
obey the labor laws, which they never did.

With Reza Shah gone, the Majlis also came back to life.
The movement in parliament and in the nation for
democracy and freedom from British domination soon
centered around Mohammad Mossadegh, long one of the
country's most principled and incorruptible politicians.

'THE IRANIAN GEORGE WASHINGTON'

In early 1951, the Shah and the British lost control of
Iranian politics. On March 15, with overwhelming popular
support, the Majlis voted unanimously to nationalize
AIOC's assets, creating the National Iranian Oil
Company. On April 28 the Majlis overwhelmingly elected
Mossadegh - Anglo-Iranian's strongest opponent- as prime
minister.

The British sought revenge. Anglo-Iranian removed all of
its managers and technicians (it had refused to train
Iranians for such positions.) It refused to ship Iran's
oil in its tankers (Iran owned none) and organized a
global boycott of Iran's oil. The British navy even
seized an Italian tanker carrying Iranian oil. The
British position was that Iran had "stolen" its oil.
They wanted U.S. help, but President Harry Truman was
sympathetic to Iran and demanded that the British
negotiate with Mossadegh - something they had no
intention of doing. Truman, however was unwilling to
buck the British economic blockade of Iran, which was
strangling its economy and tightening the screws on its
democracy.

Anglo-Iranian wanted a British military invasion of
Iran. Not only did Truman object, but Labor Party Prime
Minister Clement Attlee had no stomach for it.

Not so Winston Churchill, who returned to power in the
1951 British election. In the campaign the Conservative
Churchill attacked the Labor Party for lack of
aggressiveness against Iran. Spies operating out of the
British embassy worked to overthrow Mossadegh. When
Mossadegh learned of this, he broke off diplomatic
relations, closing Britain's embassy and expelling its
spies as well as its diplomats.

Mossadegh came to New York in October 1951 for a UN
Security Council debate on a British resolution
condemning Iran's oil nationalization. Mossadegh, a
skilled lawyer and parliamentary debater, clearly beat
the British UN ambassador, and increased public support
for Iran in the U.S. and worldwide. He went to
Washington to meet President Truman, stopping in
Philadelphia to visit the birthplace of American
democracy, Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. Time
magazine put him on its cover as "Man of the Year,"
calling him "the Iranian George Washington."

Over many years Britain developed a network of Iranian
agents and bribed officials. But with its Secret
Intelligence Service kicked out of Iran, it couldn't do
much. The 1952 election of Republican President Dwight
Eisenhower revived British hopes, and the two brothers
chosen to run Eisenhower's foreign policy - John Foster
Dulles as secretary of state and Allen Dulles as CIA
director - signed on to British coup plans even before
the new administration took office. President Eisenhower
resisted, but the Dulleses won him over not on the basis
of British oil interests, but with Cold War fears of an
imagined Soviet takeover of Iran.

Kermit Roosevelt, a top CIA operative and grandson of
Theodore Roosevelt, ran "Operation Ajax" from the U.S.
embassy in Teheran. He took up where the British left
off, bribing generals, newspaper publishers, street gang
leaders and Muslim clergy. Stories planted in newspapers
and riots by hired mobs painted a false picture of
Mossadegh as an ally of Russia and an enemy of Islam.

KILLING DEMOCRACY FOR OIL

Iranians overwhelmingly supported Mossadegh and his
policies. He advanced the rights of women, enacted sick
pay and unemployment compensation for workers, and freed
peasants from forced labor for landlords. But with the
cooperation of the Shah and key military leaders, a few
CIA agents in August 1953 overthrew Mossadegh and killed
democracy in Iran. The new regime arrested the
71-year-old Mossadegh, tried and convicted him of
treason, and sentenced him to three years in prison and
life under house arrest. He died in 1967.

The coup installed General Fazlollah Zahedi as prime
minister, but he lasted only two years. The Shah
regained the absolute power of earlier shahs, and he
hired and fired prime ministers at will. Officers loyal
to Mossadegh were shot, as were other democrats and
dissidents, and for the next 26 years the Shah ruled
through the terror of his secret police, the Savak.

Iranian democracy died so the British could own Iran's
oil. But because the U.S. government overthrew
Mossadegh, the British lost their monopoly. AIOC -
renamed British Petroleum in 1954 - got 40 percent
control of Iran's oil. Another 40 percent went to the
five major American oil companies, and the remaining 20
percent to Royal Dutch Shell and the French Petroleum
Company now known as Total.

In 1963 the Shah gained a resolute enemy when his police
arrested Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who as a young
Shiite cleric had opposed Mossadegh. But the 1979
Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Shah included much
more than Islamic fundamentalists. In the mass
demonstrations of 1978 and '79, many carried pictures of
Mossadegh. This was both a protest against his overthrow
and a call for the kind of secular democracy he had
represented.

The first post-revolution governments were dominated by
people associated with Mossadegh and his principles,
including Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan and President
Abolhassan Bani-Sadr. But when President Carter allowed
the ex-Shah to come to the U.S. for medical treatment,
many Iranians feared a repeat of 1953 - a U.S. coup to
restore the Shah. A group of Islamic militants seized
the U.S. embassy - the place from which the 1953 coup
had been organized - and held 52 Americans hostage for
444 days. The hostage crisis doomed Carter's re-election
- and enabled Islamic fundamentalists around Khomeini to
consolidate power.

The past 31 years of bad U.S.-Iranian relations have
their roots in the CIA overthrow of Mossadegh, on behalf
of an arrogant British oil company. Few Americans
remember what happened in Iran in 1953, but nearly all
Iranians do. When U.S. presidents preach about the
virtues of democracy, it sounds like hypocrisy to
millions of people around the world who know that Iran
once had the beginnings of a democracy, but the U.S.
government killed it.

Long before BP poisoned the Gulf of Mexico, our
government's support for that company poisoned our
foreign relations. Perhaps it is time for us to do what
Prime Minister Mossadegh and the Iranian people did in
1951, and declare that BP is unfit to control our
resources - and that our oil, our environment, and our
government should belong to us.

PortsideLabor aims to provide material of interest to
people on the left that will help them to interpret the
world and to change it.

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